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Disturbing, H9N2/H1N1-2/H3N2/H5N1 and SWINE

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    Posted: April 14 2009 at 10:04am
.
 Tuesday April 14, 2009
.........................................
Mary (hoping Time /Newsweek/US News &World Report will pick up on this)
 
 
Are young children being infected with?
 
 
 
H9N2
............
Raging in pigs in CHINA SINCE 2006
.........................................................
 
 
 excerpt-
 
China currently has a very grim situation of -
 

 
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV),
 
also known as Blue-Ear Pig Disease

This economically important    pandemic disease  
 
causes reproductive failure in breeding stock (PREGNANT)  and respiratory tract
 
illness in >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>YOUNG pigs.

 
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcine_Reproductive_and_Respiratory_Syndrome
...........................................................................................................
 
 
excerpt- (PubMed)

 
... our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses
 
to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance,
 
especially after the emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSVs in pigs in China.
 

...All the eight gene segments of the four swine H9N2 viruses
 
 
are highly homologous to
 
 
A/Pigeon/Nanchang/2-0461/00 (H9N2)
 
or
 
A/Wild Duck/Nanchang/2-0480/00 (H9N2).
 

from- PubMed
 
 
China.Yu H, Hua RH, Wei TC, Zhou YJ, Tian ZJ, Li GX, Liu TQ, Tong GZ.
National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, China.
 
As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans.
 
 
In April 2006, a disease caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in several pig farms and subsequently overwhelmed almost half of China with more than 2,000,000 cases of pig infection. Here we report a case in which four swine H9N2 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs infected by highly pathogenic PRRSVs in Guangxi province in China.
 
 
All the eight gene segments of the four swine H9N2 viruses are highly homologous to
A/Pigeon/Nanchang/2-0461/00 (H9N2) or A/Wild Duck/Nanchang/2-0480/00 (H9N2).
Phylogenetic analyses of eight genes show that the swine H9N2 influenza viruses are of avian origin
and may be the descendants of A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like viruses.

Molecular analysis of the HA gene indicates that our H9N2 isolates might have high-affinity binding to the alpha2,6-NeuAcGal receptor found in human cells. In conclusion,

 our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance, especially after the emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSVs in pigs in China.
PMID: 18403137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related articles
Swine infection with H9N2 influenza viruses in China in 2004. Virus Genes. 2008 Jun; 36(3):461-9. Epub 2008 Apr 10.
[Virus Genes. 2008]
Antigenic and genetic characterization of H9N2 swine influenza viruses in China. J Gen Virol. 2007 Jul; 88(Pt 7):2035-41.
[J Gen Virol. 2007]
Cocirculation of avian H9N2 and contemporary "human" H3N2 influenza A viruses in pigs in southeastern China: potential for genetic reassortment? J Virol. 2001 Oct; 75(20):9679-86.
[J Virol. 2001]
ReviewAvian influenza and human health. Acta Trop. 2002 Jul; 83(1):1-6.
[Acta Trop. 2002]
ReviewRecent zoonoses caused by influenza A viruses. Rev Sci Tech. 2000 Apr; 19(1):197-225.
[Rev Sci Tech. 2000]

....................................................................................................................
 
China is making an effort, but will it be enough?
 
 
excerpt from...
 
 
 
 
Dazhu County People's Government Office
 

Do a good job in the spring of 2009 on animal epidemic prevention notice
People's Government of the township, county-level departments:
    
 
For the full completion of the work of animal epidemic prevention this year, the goals and tasks, to enhance the immune animal density and the quality of immunization to ensure that the county clean without major animal disease epidemic and the quality and safety of livestock products. Now do a good job this spring on the practical matters related to animal epidemic prevention notice is as follows. First, to enhance understanding, strengthen leadership
 
 
This year, the national major animal epidemic situation is very grim situation.
 
Beijing, Shandong, Shanxi, Hunan, Xinjiang, Guizhou, Guangxi

and other places there were eight cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza cases.

Hubei, Xinjiang, Shanghai, Shanxi and other places also have foot and mouth disease and

highly pathogenic livestock Blue ear pig disease and other major animal epidemic situation.
 
Spring season and transport of animals is the peak period is the season of high animal disease, prevention and control of serious abnormal situation.
 
To this end, the township should attach great importance to the departments concerned, a careful analysis of the current major international and domestic animal disease situation, to further enhance the sense of urgency and responsibility, immediate action, the full deployment,

carefully organized and scientific prevention and control, increase investment, effective and orderly to carry out a good spring animal disease prevention and control work. 
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Veterinary Microbiology : Isolation and pathotyping of H9N2 avian ...
Further characterization of Indian H9N2 isolates is required to understand ..... We also thank the DADF, MOA, Government of India for their co-operation and ...
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  • .................
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    more from Google
     
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  •  
     
     
    ...................................
     
     
     
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 14 2009 at 10:38am
    .
    How 'Silent' is H9N2?
     
     
    China and Hong Kong seem to be rather open on the DANGER of H9N2
    ....................................................................................................................
     
     
    Excerpt from Yahoo Hong Kong
     
    Wednesday, April 15  
     
    24°C 88 % Temperature 24 ° C Humidity 88%
     
     
    ......................................
     
    Ming Pao Daily News,
     
     a newsletter with his family a long time girl living in Shenzhen, Hong Kong Tuen Mun Hospital due to a doctor, was diagnosed with avian influenza H9N2 infection.
     
     ...Experts advise:
     
     
     Do not underestimate the threat of H9N2

    Experts believe that the world's attention to the focus of bird flu, mostly on high pathogenicity, mortality of the H5N1 virus, the threat of H9N2 had not been sufficient attention.
     
     
    Professor Wei Bosi in July this year attended a seminar in Hong Kong, warning of the
     
    greater risk of H9N2, which is a silent virus, more easily transmitted.
     
    H9N2 avian influenza virus characteristics, are considered more "human" and more capable
     
    than the impact of H5N1 human cell receptors, so that the virus easier to invasive cells.
     
    Now on the H5N1 bird flu worldwide, there are more comprehensive measures to deal
     
    with, but experts believe that the world should be on guard against the same H9N2 bird flu
     

    Experts believe that the world's attention to the focus of bird flu, mostly on high
     
    pathogenicity, mortality of the H5N1 virus, the threat of H9N2 had not been sufficient
     
    attention. Professor Wei Bosi in July this year attended a seminar in Hong Kong, warning of
     
    the greater risk of H9N2, which is a silent virus, more easily transmitted.
     
    H9N2 avian influenza virus characteristics, are considered more "human" and more capable
     
    than the impact of H5N1 human cell receptors, so that the virus easier to invasive cells.
     
    Now on the H5N1 bird flu worldwide, there are more comprehensive measures to deal
     
    with, but experts believe that the world should be on guard against the same H9N2 bird flu
     
     
    Welcome to respond to

    editorial@mingpao.com 

     
    article here-
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 14 2009 at 10:57am
     
    They do test.... and thery do know, what is where...
     
     
    The FLOCKSCREEN™ AI-4 kit,
     
    combines the AI-1 and AI-3 kits in a single product, providing a 400 test product that may
     
    be used to detect Group A, H5, H7 and H9 targets in any combination up to a total
     
    maximum of 400 reactions.
     
    ........................................
     
     
    .....................
     
     
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 14 2009 at 11:09am
     
     
    Girl's H9N2 virus confirmed of avian origin in HK
     
     
    excerpt from-
     
     
     
    ...The virus is highly similar to the H9N2 virus isolated from another case involving a nine-month-old girl in 2007, the center said.

    The virus found in the two-month-old girl was sensitive to antiviral medicines Tamiflu and Amantadine.

    The girl is being treated in Tuen Mun Hospital for another disease. Her symptoms of H9N2 infection have subsided.

    Samples taken from her on Jan. 2 tested negative for H9N2. Her close contacts did not develop symptoms of H9N2 infection.
     
    .....................................
     
     
     
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    .
     
     
    H9N2?
     
     
    Will they tell us the avian strain?
    ......................................................
     
    From Hong Kong
    ..........................................
     

    Egypt: Avian Influenza, human
     
    Egypt reported 4 new human cases of Avian Influenza virus infection.
     
     
    These 4 cases were
     
     
    a 2.5-year-old female from the Qena District, Qena Governorate,
    a 2-year-old boy and
    a 21-month-old boy from Al-Bahaira province, and
    a 6-year-old boy from Shubra El-Khemia, Qalyubia.
     
     
    The first three cases remained in a stable condition and the fourth case’s condition was critical.
     
     
    Of the 63 cases confirmed to date in Egypt, 23 have been fatal.
    (Source: World Health Organization 30 March 2009 & ProMED-mail 2, 4 & 6 April 2009)
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    source-

    www.animalagriculture.org/Solutions/Proceedings/Annual%20Meeting/2009/Poultry/Miles,%20Andrea.pdf


    AVIAN INFLUENZA:Current Challenges with H5N1 and H9N2

    Andrea M. Miles, DVM, PhDNational Institute for Animal Agriculture April 1st 2009
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Page 22
    SummaryGood News: Fewer new countries infected with H5N1 in 2008 than in any of the

    previous 5 yearsBad News:• H5N1 is “endemic” in 5 countries• Sporadic H5N1 outbreaks
     
    can be expected to continue • H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East and Asia, can be
     
    expected to spread • H9N2 may be a bigger threat than H5N1 for a
     
    human pandemic due to
     
    prevalence and human susceptibility
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 23
    WHO: Priorities for Pandemic Prevention and PreparednessReduce human exposure to
     
    H5N1 virus• Perhaps we should add H9N2?Strengthen early warning systemsIntensify r
     
    rapid containment operations Build local capacityCoordinate global research
     
     
    ..................................
     
     
    From China News
    .................................
     
     
    (Source: Sohu News January 8, 2009)

    Hong Kong: H9N2 cases, gene sequencing showed the virus from birds

     

       
    Hong Kong Center for Health Protection Department of Health, January 7 has been
     
    completed in December 2008 from a two-month-old girl made the H9N2 virus gene
     
    sequencing studies showed that all genes are from birds.
     


       
     A CHP spokesman said that virus samples obtained from girls of all eight gene order has
     
    been completed. He said: "The gene sequencing showed that they are avian in nature,
     
    has not found and the human influenza virus genes portfolio." "Viruses, and another in
     
    2007 involving a nine-month-girls very similar to H9N2 viruses. "
     


     
    .....................................................
     
    Mary  April 14, 2009
     
    ......................................................
     
     
     

    Avian influenza viruses infecting humans.Subbarao K, Katz J.
    Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
     
     
    DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=5&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmed
     
     
    Avian species, particularly waterfowl, are the natural hosts of influenza A viruses. Influenza viruses bearing each of the 15 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase subtypes infect birds and serve as a reservoir from which influenza viruses or genes are introduced into the human population. Viruses with novel hemagglutinin genes derived from avian influenza viruses, with or without other accompanying avian influenza virus genes, have the potential for pandemic spread when the human population lacks protective immunity against the new hemagglutinin.
     

    Avian influenza viruses were thought to be limited in their ability to directly infect humans
     
    until 1997, when 18 human infections with avian influenza H5N1 viruses occurred in Hong Kong.

    In 1999, two human infections with avian influenza H9N2 viruses were also identified in Hong Kong.

    These events established that avian viruses could infect humans
     
    without acquiring human influenza genes by reassortment in an intermediate host
     
    and highlighted challenges associated with the detection of human immune responses to
     
    avian nfluenza viruses and the development of appropriate vaccines.
     
    PMID: 11130181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
    .......................................................................................
     
     
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    Good stuff Mary. This is one of our big possibles to combine with H1N1 or run with H3N2.  These off strains have more of a chance to slip through the cracks.

    ja/mc
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 19 2009 at 5:32pm
     
     
    Reassortant viruses represented by A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) were the major H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but have not been detected since the chicken slaughter in 1997.
     
    The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were frequently isolated from quail, while Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses were predominately associated with chickens. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were evolving relatively rapidly, especially in their PB2, HA, NP, and NA genes,
     
     
    suggesting that they are in the process of adapting to a new host.
     
    Experimental studies showed that both H9N2 lineages were primarily spread by the
     
    aerosol route and that neither quail nor chickens showed evidence of disease. The high prevalence of quail infected with Qa/HK/G1/97-like virus that contains six gene segments genetically highly related to HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus emphasizes the need for surveillance of mammals including humans.
     
     
    from-
     
    The transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the realization that the A/Hong
     
    Kong/156/97-like (H5N1) (abbreviated HK/156/97) genome complex may be present in
     
    H9N2 viruses in southeastern China necessitated a study of the distribution and
     
    characterization of H9N2 viruses in poultry in the Hong Kong SAR in 1999. Serological
     
    studies indicated that H9N2 influenza viruses had infected a high proportion of chickens
     
    and other land-based birds (pigeon, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl, and chukka) from
     
    southeastern China.
     
     
     Two lineages of H9N2 influenza viruses present in the live-poultry markets were represented by A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-like and A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (Dk/HK/Y280/97)-like viruses. Up to 16% of cages of quail in the poultry markets contained Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses, while about 5% of cages of other land-based birds were infected with Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses. No reassortant between the two H9N2 virus lineages was detected despite their cocirculation in the poultry markets. Reassortant viruses represented by A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) were the major H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but have not been detected since the chicken slaughter in 1997. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were frequently isolated from quail, while Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses were predominately associated with chickens. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were evolving relatively rapidly, especially in their PB2, HA, NP, and NA genes, suggesting that they are in the process of adapting to a new host. Experimental studies showed that both H9N2 lineages were primarily spread by the aerosol route and that neither quail nor chickens showed evidence of disease. The high prevalence of quail infected with Qa/HK/G1/97-like virus that contains six gene segments genetically highly related to HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus emphasizes the need for surveillance of mammals including humans.
     
     
    PMID: 11000205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
     
     
    Mary08...
     
     
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    Vet Microbiol. 2000 May 22;74(1-2):141-7.
    Interspecies transmission of influenza viruses:
    H5N1 virus and a Hong Kong SAR perspective.
    Shortridge KF, Gao P, Guan Y, Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Markwell D, Takada A, Webster RG.
     
     
     
     
    ...It highlights the role of the chicken in the many live poultry markets as the source of the virus for humans. The slaughter of chicken and other poultry across the SAR seemingly averted an influenza pandemic.
     
    This perspective from Hong Kong SAR marks the coming-of-age of acceptance of the role of avian hosts as a source of pandemic human influenza viruses and offers the prospect of providing a good baseline for influenza pandemic preparedness in the future. Improved surveillance is the key.
     
     
    This is illustrated through the H9N2 virus which appears to have provided the 'replicating' genes for the H5N1 virus and which has since been isolated in the SAR from poultry, pigs and humans highlighting its propensity for interspecies transmission.

    PMID: 10799786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     
     
     
     
    ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.
    Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedreview
    s&logdbfrom=pubmed
     
     
     
    Mary08................
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     http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/biofacts/avflu_human.html


    CIDRAP
    ...............

    A recent report, however, suggests that human infections with H9N2 viruses

    may be more common than previously recognized (see References: Wan

    2008). The authors also concluded that H9N2 viruses can evolve extensively

    and reassort, suggesting that they may be capable of undergoing further

    adaptation for more efficient transmission among mammals, including

    humans.

    more on H9N2...

    Clinical signs ranged from very mild disease to high morbidity and mortality when the virus was associated with a secondary pathogen


    http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1637/7590-040206R1.1

    ...........................

    Mary08
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    .
     
     
     
    Swine flu cases in Calif. worry health officials
    .....................................................................
     
     
    Why am I NOT SURPRISED?
     
    hello?
     
     
    .....................................
     
     
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcine_Reproductive_and_Respiratory_Syndrome
    ...........................................................................................................
     
     
    excerpt- (PubMed)

     
    ... our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses
     
    to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance,
     
    especially after the emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSVs in pigs in China.
     

    ...All the eight gene segments of the four swine H9N2 viruses
     
     
    are highly homologous to
     
     
    A/Pigeon/Nanchang/2-0461/00 (H9N2)
     
    or
     
    A/Wild Duck/Nanchang/2-0480/00 (H9N2).
     
     
    ................................................................................
     
     
     
     
     
     2008

    Isolation and Identification of Swine Influenza A Subtype H3N2 Strain
    and Sequencing of the Virus Genome 

    SUN Zhi-yong;GUO Wan-zhu; HAN Guo-quan;CHEN Jin-hui;WANG Xiao-yu;XU Zhi-wen
     
    1.Animal Biotechnology Centre of Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014,China;2.Dongguan  Inspection and Quarantine Bureau,Dongguan 523072,China
     
    Abstract 
     
    A influenza virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Sichuan province and identified by HA, HI and RT-PCR and some other methods,
    then it was named A/swine/Sichuan/01/2006(H3N2).
    The virus could not only passage stably in SPF embryonated eggs but also multiply in MDCK cell line and induce conspicuous pathological changes.
     
    The sequence analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence of
    A/swine/Sichuan/01/2006(H3N2) strain shared 99% homology with standard strains

     
    A/swine/Hong Kong/4361/99(H3N2),
     
    A/New York/429/2003(H3N2),
     
    A/Queensland/6/ 2000 (H3N2) and
     
    A/New South Wales/4/1999(H3N2).

     
    The results of sequence analysis indicated that the genome of
    A/swine/Sichuan/01/2006(H3N2)strain
     
    includes 8 fragments and the total sequence is 13 577 bp.

    Phylogenetic trees based on HA and NA protein gene deduced
     
    amino acid sequence showed that
     
    A/swine/Sichuan/01/2006(H3N2)
    have close relationship with the standard strains
     
     
    A/Queensland/6/2000(H3N2) and
     
    A/South Australia/ 81 / 2000 (H3N2).

     

    .................................
     
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 21 2009 at 2:43pm
     
     
     
    H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B.

    Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2

     
    has increased from 1% in 1994 ...

    to 91% in 2005. [1]


    Influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2 are all known to

    cause Swine influenza viruses infections. [2] [3]    Also recently H2N3. [4]

     

    Swine flu cases in Calif. worry health officials
    .....................................................................
     
    ......................................................................................................................................... 
     
    variant of H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. [1]
     
    A different variant exists in pig populations. Controversy arose in October 2005, after the H1N1 genome was published in the journal Science. Many fear that this information could be used for bioterrorism.

    "When he compared the 1918 virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr. Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4,400 amino acids. Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer that could spread from person to person." [2]

    Low pathogenic H1N1 strains still exist in the wild today, causing roughly half of all flu infections in 2006. [3]

    source
    wapedia
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    2001.....on line.....2003

     
    Evolving H3N2 and emerging H1N2 swine influenza viruses in the United States
    ..........................................................................................................................................
     
     

    Richard J. Webbya, Sabrina L. Swensonb, Scott L. Kraussa, Sagar M. Goyalc, Kurt D. Rossowc and Robert G. Webstera, d, ,
     
    Abstract
    Background: Reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses have recently become established in swine populations throughout the United States.
    Viruses of two genotypes (a human and swine virus reassortant and a human, swine, and avian virus reassortant) were isolated from swine during the index disease outbreaks.

    Methods: To identify the genetic composition of the currently circulating viruses, we sequenced the genes of seven isolates from different infected herds.

    Results: Six viruses contained the human/swine/avian gene complex, but the complex was associated with three phylogenetically distinct human H3 haemagglutinins (HA).

    The remaining virus was an H1N2 reassortant containing seven genes similar to those of swine H3N2 viruses

    and an HA gene derived from a classical-swine H1N1 virus.

    The non-HA genes of this H1N2 virus were more similar to those of swine H3N2 viruses than to those of the recently reported H1N2 swine virus from Indiana [J. Clin. Microbiol. 38 (2000) 2453].
     
    This finding suggests that each of the H1N2 viruses were derived through independent reassortment events.

    Conclusions: We conclude that viruses containing the avian-like genes are primarily responsible for the increased prevalence of
    H3N2 viruses throughout U.S. swine populations. H3N2 viruses have continued to spread and have undergone further reassortment with human and swine viruses resulting in the emergence of viruses with distinct antigenicity and subtype.
    Author Keywords: Porcine influenza A virus; Reassortant virus; Antigenic drift
     
     

    source-
    version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=6b53af024e3aca7b1cf8314f8abec057
     
     
    ........................................
     
     
     
     
     
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 21 2009 at 3:16pm
     
     
    In the United States, the classic H1N1 subtype was exclusively prevalent among swine populations before 1998;
     
     
    however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. Most H3N2
     
    virus isolates are triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, and PB1),
     
    swine (NS, NP, and M), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages. [...] Present vaccination
     
    strategies for SIV control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of 1 of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States.
     
     
    Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to 3 commercial SIV vaccines.
     
     
    Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests that current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses."

    Avian influenza virus H3N2
    H3N2

    H3N2 is a subtype of the Influenzavirus A. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ....
     is endemic in pig
    Pig

    Pigs, also called hogs or swine, are a genus of even-toed ungulates within the Family Suidae. The name pig, hog, or swine most commonly refers to the Domestic pig in everyday parlance, but technically encompasses several distinct species, including the Wild Boar....
    s in China
    China

    China is a Culture of China, an ancient civilization, and, depending on perspective, a national or multinational entity extending over a large area in East Asia....
     and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, increasing fears of the emergence of new variant strains. Health experts say pigs can carry human influenza
    Influenza

    Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease that affects birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the biological family Orthomyxoviridae ....
     viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome sub-units by genetic reassortment
    Reassortment

    Reassortment is the mixing of the genetics of two similar viruses that are infecting the same cell. In particular, reassortment occurs among influenza viruses, whose genomes consist of 8 distinct segments of RNA....
    ) with H5N1
    H5N1

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as "bird flu," A or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenzavirus A which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species....
    , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. H3N2 evolved from H2N2
     
     
    H2N2

    H2N2 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A . H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain , H3N2, and various strains found in birds....
     by antigenic shift
    Antigenic shift

    Antigenic shift is the process by which at least two different strains of a virus, , especially influenza, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains....

     and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of 1968 and 1969 that killed up to 750,000 humans. The dominant strain of annual flu in humans in January 2006 is H3N2
    H3N2

    H3N2 is a subtype of the Influenzavirus A. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ....
    . Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine
    Amantadine

    Amantadine is the organic compound known formally as 1-aminoadamantane. The molecule consists of adamantane backbone that is substituted at one of the four methyne positions with an amino group....
     and rimantadine
    Rimantadine

    Rimantadine is an orally administered antiviral drug used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. When taken within one to two days of developing symptoms, rimantadine can shorten the duration and moderate the severity of influenza....
     in H3N2 in humans has increased to 91% in 2005.
     
    A combination of these two subtypes of the species known as the avian influenza virus in a country like China is a worst case scenario.
     
     
     In August 2004, researchers in China found H5N1 in pigs.
    ................................................................................................................

     

     

     
     
    ...........................
     


     
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    It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian–human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who suffered from pneumonia.
     
    Both viruses proved to be antigenically and genetically similar to avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses which currently circulate in European pigs.
     
     
     It is concluded that European swine H1N1 viruses can infect humans directly, causing serious disease without the need for any reassortment event.
     
     
    version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f39d1787633c80e6fbf9aba974163537
     
     
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    .
     
     
    (I Swear Their Gonna Kill Us All)
     
     
    how bright is this?  
     
    Well ya know pigs can't get H5N1 all that easy....so what we went and did was to stuff it up their noses just to see what we could see....you know....whatever might happen if ya just kinda mix the stuff all together in a pig....what can ya get?  Cause for sure we want to have a vaccine ready to knock it out, damn the human race anyway.  Hand me that pig ...
     
     
     
    ....................................................................................................................................
     
     

    Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit

    Title: Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Authors
    item Lipatov, Aleksandr
    item Kwon, Yong Kuk - USDA, FAS, VISITING SCI
    item Sarmento, Luciana
    item Lager, Kelly
    item Spackman, Erica
    item Suarez, David
    item Swayne, David

    Submitted to: Public Library of Science for Pathogens
    Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
    Publication Acceptance Date: May 14, 2008
    Publication Date: July 1, 2008
    Citation: Lipatov, A.S., Kwon, Y., Sarmento, L., Lager, K.M., Spackman, E., Suarez, D.L., Swayne, D.E. 2008. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Public Library of Science for Pathogens [serial online]. 4(7):e1000102. Available: http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000102.

    Interpretive Summary: The ability of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) to infect and cause disease in pigs is unknown. We exposed groups of conventional 2-3-week-old domestic piglets in the nose with one of four different H5N1 HPAI viruses or swine influenza viruses (SIV) of H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes. The pigs were more resistant to infection with the H5N1 HPAI virus than to the H3N2/H1N1 SIV. None of the pigs developed disease, but with two of the H5N1 HPAI viruses, exposed pigs lost weight and developed mild pneumonia. The H5N1 viruses only grew in the respiratory tract, but a lower amount of virus was produced than with infections by the two SIV. Feeding raw H5N1 infected poultry meat to pigs transmitted the virus causing infection detected by an antibody response, but no disease. Pigs had a low susceptibility to infection with H5N1 HPAI.

    Technical Abstract: Background. Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses are one of the natural hosts where such reassortment events could occur. The susceptibility of pigs to infection with various H5N1 HPAI viruses was characterized in this study. Methods and Findings. Two to three weeks-old domestic piglets were intranasally inoculated with 106 EID50 of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN/04), A/chicken/Indonesia/7/03 (Ck/Indo/03), A/Whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (WS/Mong/05), and A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/ 209/06 (MDk/VN/06) viruses. Swine H3N2 and H1N1 viruses were studied as a positive control for swine influenza virus infection. The pathogenicity of the H5N1 HPAI viruses was also characterized in mouse and ferrets animal models. Inoculation of pigs with H5N1 viruses did not result in clinical signs when administered intranasally or when consumed in infected chicken meat. Mild weight loss was seen in pigs inoculated with WS/Mong/05, Ck/Indo/03 H5N1 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. WS/Mong/05, Ck/Indo/03 and VN/04 viruses were detected in nasal swabs of inoculated pigs mainly on days 1 and 2. Titers of H5N1 viruses in nasal swabs were remarkably lower compared with swine influenza viruses. Replication of all four H5N1 viruses in pigs was restricted to the respiratory tract, mainly to the lungs. Titers of H5N1 viruses in the lungs were lower than those of swine viruses. Histological examination revealed mild to moderate bronchiolitis and focal alveolitis in the lungs of pigs infected with H5N1 viruses while infection with swine influenza viruses resulted in severe tracheobronchitis and bronchopneumonia. Conclusions. Pigs had lower susceptibility to infection with H5N1 HPAI. Inoculation of pigs with H5N1 viruses resulted in asymptomatic infection restricted to the respiratory tract in contrast to mouse and ferrets animal models, where some of the studied viruses are highly pathogenic and replicate systemically.

       

     
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    Spackman, Erica
    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary
    Afonso, Claudio
    Suarez, David
    Swayne, David
     
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    Last Modified: 04/20/2009
     
     
     
     
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 21 2009 at 5:47pm

     http://www.lookatvietnam.com/2009/04/blue-ear-pig-disease-now-under-control.html

     

    Blue-ear pig disease now under control

    ................................................................................................................

    April 13, 2009   about News, SocialBlue-ear pig disease has been brought under control thanks to the introduction of a series of tough measures to combat diseases in cattle and poultry on a nationwide scale.

    LookAtVietnam - Blue-ear pig disease has been brought under control thanks to the introduction of a series of tough measures to combat diseases in cattle and poultry on a nationwide scale, according to the Department of Animal Health, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

    This disease broke out in Quang Nam province in February and spread quickly to 31 communes in such 4 districts of Dien Ban, Que Son, Thang Binh and Duy Xuyen, infecting 3,000 pigs. However, on April 11, the province announced that it had dealt with the outbreak successfully and had put it under control.

    Meanwhile, Bac Giang province has been taken off the national list of provinces infected with foot-and-mouth disease but Kon Tum and Son La provinces have still reported cases of the disease in the last 21 days.

    Now bird flu is only existent in Dien Bien province.

    VietNamNet/VOV

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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: April 21 2009 at 5:55pm
     
     
     
    It is still a problem in China..... in 2009
     
     

    Blue-Ear Pig Disease Sweeps China

    By Anna Boyd
    14:21, August 20th 2007
     
    Veterinarians across China are fighting a deadly disease threatening the pig population, the blue-ear virus being reported in 26 of the 33 Chinese provinces.

    According to the authorities, this new strain of virus affects most categories of pigs including boars. The original form of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- also known as blue-ear pig disease- affected only sows and piglets, but across time it suffered mutations and became more deadly.

    Approximately 257,000 cases have been reported by the authorities, but other sources sustain the number of infested pigs reaches millions. Veterinary officials and farmers began a campaign of immunization across the country, about 175,000 animals being culled.

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