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H5N1 spreading in minks

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Dutch Josh View Drop Down
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    Posted: January 19 2023 at 11:04pm

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/967212-eurosurveillance-hpai-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-farmed-minks-spain-october-2022[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/internet-communication/avian-flu-diary/967212-eurosurveillance-hpai-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-farmed-minks-spain-october-2022 ;

Discussion

We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of clade 2.3.4.4b HPAI H5N1 virus infection of minks farmed for their fur in Europe. The viruses identified presented the highest similarity with strains of the A/gull/France/22P015977/2022-like genotype, which has already been described in multiple wild bird species and sporadically in poultry across northern Europe [6]. However, the viruses detected at the mink farm are distinguished from all the clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 viruses characterised thus far in the avian population in Europe as they bear an uncommon mutation (T271A) in the PB2 genewhich may have public health implications.

Indeed, the same mutation is present in the avian-like PB2 gene of the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (H1N1pdm). Zhang et al. [
9] demonstrated that mutations to the avian virus-conserved residue (threonine, T) reduced polymerase activity and abolished the H1N1pdm virus respiratory droplet transmission in guinea pigs.

Furthermore, this study shows that amino acid 271A of PB2 plays a key role in virus acquisition of the mutation at position 226 of HA that confers human receptor recognition. As T271A is an uncommon amino acid change not previously identified among European HPAI H5 viruses in 2020–22, with the exception of a single H5N1 virus from a mammalian host (European polecat), this mutation could have arisen de novo in minks. However, the data available are not sufficient to exclude the possibility of an unobserved circulation of avian viruses bearing this substitution in the avian population.

Our findings also indicate that an onward transmission of the virus to other minks may have taken place in the affected farm. This is suggested by the increasing number of infected animals identified after the confirmation of the disease and the progression of the infection from the initially affected area to the entire holding. Additional experimental studies are ongoing to further explore virulence and transmissibility of these viruses.

and [url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/01/eurosurveillance-hpai-ah5n1-virus.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/01/eurosurveillance-hpai-ah5n1-virus.html ;

When H5N1 was reported in the Mink farm last October, there had only been 3 known human infections with the 2.3.4.4b clade of the virus (1 UK, 1 US, 1 in Spain), and all had been either very mild or asymptomatic. 

Since then, we've learned of three severe cases, including 1 fatality, which raises the stakes considerably. 

Today the journal Eurosurveillance provides a detailed report on the outbreak in mink, including the detection of rare mutation (T271A), which `enhances the polymerase activity of influenza A viruses in mammalian host cells and mice' 

DJ...so how likely is it H5N1 -already found to be spreading in minks-may reach mice, rats ? [url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_5[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_5 ;

Cluster 5 is a designation used by the Danish Statens Serum Institut for a virus variant described by the institute in autumn 2020, in connection with investigations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among mink and humans in the north of Jutland, Denmark.[1]

DJ, In several countries CoViD may have spread from minks into humans...Some countries (finally) stopped mink-fur-farming...however lots of other countries still allow mink-farms....

Since there are lots of respitory diseases spreading I think it is very likely more H5N1 human flu cases may be around. So far most of those cases were mild...But even severe cases could be misdiagnosed if the patient also is testing positive for another infectious disease (flu, RS-virus, CoViD etc...lots of it around)....

A main reason for NOT finding more cases may be in the fact we are not looking for them....Denial as a strategy is a bad choice !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 20 2023 at 7:05am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/europe/h5n1-tracking/spain/960881-spain-more-than-50-000-mink-slaughtered-on-a-farm-in-a-coru%C3%B1a-after-h5n1-avian-flu-outbreak-was-detected-october-18-2022[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/europe/h5n1-tracking/spain/960881-spain-more-than-50-000-mink-slaughtered-on-a-farm-in-a-coru%C3%B1a-after-h5n1-avian-flu-outbreak-was-detected-october-18-2022 ;

Spain: More than 50,000 mink slaughtered on a farm in A Coruña after H5N1 avian flu outbreak was detected - October 18, 2022


Source: https://www.laopinioncoruna.es/galic...-77411953.html

Source: https://www.laopinioncoruna.es/galic...-77411953.html

More than 50,000 mink slaughtered on a farm in A Coruña after a bird flu outbreak was detected
The Xunta has transferred the case to the Public Health authorities and has prohibited the entry and exit of vehicles of people outside the farm
EP
18 10 22 | 19:45 | Updated at 19:51

The Xunta de Galicia has decided to slaughter more than 50,000 specimens of mink from a farm located in the province of A Coruña after detecting an outbreak of avian flu, according to the Ministry of Rural Environment.

It is, he explains, a subtype of virus that has been detected in the cases registered in Spain in the last year, both in domestic birds and in wild birds.

The case was detected after the appearance on the farm of sick animals with respiratory symptoms, as well as an abnormal increase in mortality, so samples were taken for the diagnosis of various diseases, including that caused by the Sars- Cov-2, as well as the avian flu, he explains.

As a result of these tests, two positive cases of influenza A (H5N1) were detected, which were reported to the Public Health authorities.

After receiving the results, the farm, which has 8,369 breeding females and 43,617 weaned offspring, was immobilized by the veterinary services of the Ministry, determining the prohibition of entry and exit of animals and other materials that could carry the virus and the census of the animals present.

The entry and exit of external vehicles and people from outside the farm was also restricted, in addition to reinforcing all biosecurity and cleaning and disinfection measures, as well as the adoption of others to minimize contact with farm personnel. the farm with the minks. Likewise, a survey was carried out to carry out the appropriate epidemiological studies...

DJ, time will tell if there has been further spread of H5N1 in more minks or other species. One question is did the detected mutation start in the minks-or is there a mutated H5N1 virus in some birds....(the sub-type has been detected earlier-but without the T271A mutation ?)

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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KiwiMum View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 20 2023 at 11:31am

Here's a similiar article on mammal to mammal transmission of H5N1 from the UK. Very interesting and a bit scary.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-11657279/New-bird-flu-pandemic-fears-virologists-sound-alarm-worrisome-spread.html

Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 20 2023 at 10:38pm

KiwiMum, interesting read...they mix a "gain of function-study discussion" with the ongoing H5N1 outbreak worldwide and the recent Spanish mink story....With some experts claiming-again-limited risk; outbreak in minks is under control, "very likely the high risk mutation started during the spread in minks"....

DJ-Of course one "could mix further"-the Ecuador 9 y/o girl ending up in ICU after catching H5N1 may indicate growing risks of severe disease after catching (this form of) H5N1...

[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_and_infection_of_H5N1[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_and_infection_of_H5N1

Avian flu virus can last indefinitely at a temperature dozens of degrees below freezing, as is found in the northernmost areas that migratory birds frequent.

Heat kills H5N1 (i.e. inactivates the virus).

DJ...however lots of H5N1 reported now in Latin America-it is summer there....[url]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_and_infection_of_H5N1#Avian_flu_in_humans[/url] or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_and_infection_of_H5N1#Avian_flu_in_humans (last update on that page october 30 - 2022). 

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/europe/h5n1-tracking/spain/960881-spain-more-than-50-000-mink-slaughtered-on-a-farm-in-a-coru%C3%B1a-after-h5n1-avian-flu-outbreak-was-detected-october-18-2022[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/europe/h5n1-tracking/spain/960881-spain-more-than-50-000-mink-slaughtered-on-a-farm-in-a-coru%C3%B1a-after-h5n1-avian-flu-outbreak-was-detected-october-18-2022 no further new info....

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/ provides links to quick search for not only H5N1, also H5N8, H5N6....Flutrackers had an [url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/japan/967294-japan-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n2-in-birds-on-farm-in-saiki-woah-january-20-2023[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/asia/h5n1-h5n8-h1n08-tracking/japan/967294-japan-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n2-in-birds-on-farm-in-saiki-woah-january-20-2023 H5N2 outbreak in Japan....

DJ-The H5N1 virus may be -very likely- most dominant form of "bird flu" it certainly is NOT the only virus (with in H5N1 diferent variations...)..So far H5N1 (and others) hardly did see any spread outside birds...That is the main news in this mink story....

With other mink-CoViD stories the CoViD did spread from minks to the farm cat, farm workers and even-in Denmark proven-people living nearby (via aerosols, the air...). So H5N1 in minks is 








The paper analysing the H5 avian influenza virus outbreak in mink in Spain, that was notified in October. Again, imho we are playing with fire. https://eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001

"playing with fire"...We do not need furs...stop mink farming! It is not worth that risk !

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 20 2023 at 10:55pm

DJ, More info on [url]https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001[/url] or https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001Four of the nine H5N1 virus-positive oropharyngeal swabs collected on 18 October were submitted to the European Reference laboratory (EURL) for avian influenza (AI) in Italy (Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie) for genetic characterisation. Whole genome sequences were generated (GISAID accession numbers: EPI2220590–EPI2220621) and phylogenetically analysed. The analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene segment showed that the HPAI H5N1 viruses from the minks belong to clade 2.3.4.4b (Figure 1). Clustering of the four characterised viral genomes from minks indicates that they are highly related (similarity ranging from 99.8% to 100%) and belong to the A/gull/France/22P015977/2022-like genotype [6] (Figure 2).

[url]https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001[/url] or https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001 (figure 1 lots of similarities with NL/Belgium H5N1 findings in summer of 2022). 

Also [url]https://github.com/search?o=desc&q=h5n1&s=updated&type=Repositories[/url] or https://github.com/search?o=desc&q=h5n1&s=updated&type=Repositories may have the most recent studies on H5N1. 

-Gain of function discussion, like animal testing - lots of discussions on it...Maybe one has to limit those kind of studies as much as possible but not doing such studies may bring other risks....

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 22 2023 at 5:57am

An overview of earlier detection of flu in minks [url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/01/that-touch-of-mink-flu-2023-edition.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2023/01/that-touch-of-mink-flu-2023-edition.html ;

Although many appear surprised by last October's outbreak of H5N1 in farmed mink in Spain, we have evidence going back nearly 40 years showing that mink are highly susceptible to influenza, and that large, even multi-farm, outbreaks (indicating mink-to-mink transmission) have occurred before. 

While pigs or birds are still the most likely source of the next pandemic influenza virus, an intermediary host - like mink, dogs, cats, or even seals - can't be ruled out. 

Unfortunately, surveillance and reporting from many parts of the world has deteriorated over the past few years (see Flying Blind In The Viral Storm), meaning we may never see the next one coming until it is too late to do anything to stop it.

DJ, lots of cases of infected minks in Sweden...most likely because Sweden did do a lot of testing...other countries simply fail to do enough testing in minks...

It should be noted that mink farming has become big business in China, with more than 60 million raised in 2012. Increasingly fox and raccoon dogs are raised on the same farm, increasing the risks of inter-species transmission of novel viruses,

In China, farmed animals are often fed a diet that includes raw poultry or poultry products (cite), which increases their risk of exposure to avian viruses. This practice inadvertently led to the deaths of hundreds of exotic tigers in Thailand in 2004 (see HPAI H5: Catch As Cats Can) from HPAI H5N1.

DJ, Here in NL mink-farming was a "low investment way of getting some income"....minks reproduce themselves...In the early-primitave-stage the only goal is making money (to survive...)...I think lots of infections-H5N1 and others-have been missed...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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