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Now tracking the new emerging South Africa Omicron Variant

US detects avian flu in milk

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    Posted: March 25 2024 at 3:28pm

US detects avian flu in milk, says dairy supplies are safe

Samples of milk collected from sick cattle in Kansas and Texas tested positive for avian flu, but the nation's milk supply is safe, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said on Monday.

The detections in milk and a dairy cow show the wide reach of the virus, known as bird flu, which has been found in poultry flocks and mammals around the world.


The USDA, along with the FDA and CDC, are investigating dairy cows in Kansas, Texas and New Mexico with symptoms including decreased milk production and low appetite, the USDA said.

So far, "unpasteurized, clinical samples of milk" collected from two dairy farms in Kansas and one in Texas tested positive for highly pathogenic avian flu, the government said. A cattle swab test from another dairy in Texas also was positive.

Based on findings from Texas, wild birds, which spread the virus globally, appear to have introduced the virus to cattle, the USDA said. Testing indicates the risk of human infection is low, according to the agency.

The government said milk from sick cows is being diverted or destroyed so it does not enter the food supply. Pasteurization is required for milk entering interstate commerce, a process that kills bacteria and viruses such as flu, the USDA said.

"At this stage, there is no concern about the safety of the commercial milk supply or that this circumstance poses a risk to consumer health," the agency said. It added there should be no impact on prices for milk or other dairy products.

U.S. dairy industry groups urged importers not to ban or restrict shipments of U.S. dairy products because of the detections.

Importers have limited purchases of U.S. poultry since the nation's worst-ever outbreak of the disease began in chicken and turkey flocks in 2022.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/us-detects-avian-flu-milk-221643819.html

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 25 2024 at 9:42pm

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/usda-statement-on-hpai-in-dairy-cattle.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/usda-statement-on-hpai-in-dairy-cattle.html ;

This afternoon the USDA announced test findings on the illness in dairy cows I reported on over the weekend (see Curious Reports of Unknown Disease In Dairy Cows (Texas, Kansas & New Mexico) - and just as we saw with goat kids in Minnesota last week - it turns out to be due to HPAI (presumably H5N1). 

--

As of Monday, March 25, unpasteurized, clinical samples of milk from sick cattle collected from two dairy farms in Kansas and one in Texas, as well as an oropharyngeal swab from another dairy in Texas, have tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Additional testing was initiated on Friday, March 22, and over the weekend because farms have also reported finding deceased wild birds on their properties. Based on findings from Texas, the detections appear to have been introduced by wild birds. Initial testing by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans, which would indicate that the current risk to the public remains low.

Federal and state agencies are moving quickly to conduct additional testing for HPAI, as well as viral genome sequencing, so that we can better understand the situation, including characterization of the HPAI strain or strains associated with these detections.

At this stage, there is no concern about the safety of the commercial milk supply or that this circumstance poses a risk to consumer health. Dairies are required to send only milk from healthy animals into processing for human consumption; milk from impacted animals is being diverted or destroyed so that it does not enter the food supply. In addition, pasteurization has continually proven to inactivate bacteria and viruses, like influenza, in milk. Pasteurization is required for any milk entering interstate commerce.

-

Although cattle have previously been successfully infected in the laboratory with older clades of HPAI H5 (see EID Journal Experimental Infection of Cattle with HPAI H5N1), this is the first confirmation of natural HPAI infection in cattle in the United States.

The fact that we're seeing both cattle and goats - across several Midwestern states - suddenly infected with HPAI is a concern, and likely speaks to the amount of virus being carried by migratory birds which are heading north on their spring migration. 

Since cattle and goats - which have never been infected outside of the lab - are suddenly falling victim to the virus, farms with more far susceptible animals (like swine or mink) may be at a greater risk as well.  Some recent warnings include:

EID Journal: Divergent Pathogenesis and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Swine

Netherlands: Zoonoses Experts Council (DB-Z) Risk Assessment & Warning of Swine As `Mixing Vessels' For Avian Flu

PNAS: Mink Farming Poses Risks for Future Viral Pandemics

Another reminder that avian flu continues to surprise, and that we underestimate it at our own peril.

DJ, the danger may not be in the dairy but in the type of virus (some) birds seem to be spreading...

(AI-good find-bad news !)

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 25 2024 at 9:52pm

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream latest;

Treyfish
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......
The illness was first reported in late February and had affected 15 herds in the Texas panhandle area. Most veterinarians working on the problem had said they did not believe it was a novel disease – and that appears to have been confirmed this week. There were rumors blaming bioterrorism or a variant of avian influenza and the current information seems to have borne out the latter rumor. There are reports that some herds in New Mexico are also affected by the same problems.....



The tests come as the USDA, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have worked with state veterinary and public health officials to investigate sick dairy cows in Kansas, Texas and New Mexico.

"Initial testing by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans, which would indicate that the current risk to the public remains low," the USDA news release said.

The veterinary experts are moving quickly to conduct additional testing for HPAI and will do viral genome sequencing to better understand what’s been going on with these dairy cows.

In the affected herds, the disease appears to impact about 10 percent of the animals. The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) held a conference call for members on March 22 and said that there are reports of some similar cases on Kansas dairies.

Dr. Fred Gingerich, a cattle vet who is executive director of American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) told dairyherd.com that the disease appears to peak in about three to four days and lasts 10 days to two weeks. Older dairy cows appear to be more clinically affected and their lactation is more severely affected. “Although it’s not consistent with every herd, it appears that it’s mostly affecting animals that are in mid to late lactation. It’s pretty unusual that we have something going on in older animals and not in fresh cows.”....

He told the publication that there doesn’t appear to be deaths caused by the disease, however, the milk production drop adds up to a huge economic loss on these dairy farms. Cows affected by the virus recovered from the initial illness without any secondary signs and are slowly coming back into production....

 https://www.wisfarmer.com/story/news...a/73099355007/

DJ, lots of viewpoints;

-short term; "limited regional economic loss"

-long term; This virus is not supposed to infect cows, goats !!!

-What changes/mutations are happening in the virus ?

-How widespread is this -very likely H5N1- variant ?

-A-symptomatic/mild symptomatic cases missed ?

-Pigs, minks, sheep infected ? If not why not ? (no contact with the virus ?)

-Does this new subvariant cause less symptoms in birds-however still spread via birds ?

-Cow-cow/goat-to-goat infection ? 

-Testing on farm cats/dogs/rats/mice ???? How many species are involved ????

VERY VERY ALARMING !!!!!!!!!!!!!

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote roni3470 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 6:49am

I would like a discussion among us on how we all feel about this.  I think its terrifying personally.  I am not a big the sky is falling kind of person but I wonder exactly how much they are telling us versus what they are hiding and how much of this had gone undetected or hidden because they don't want to lose the cows.

NOW is the Season to Know

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 11:09am

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/a-brief-history-of-influenza-in.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/a-brief-history-of-influenza-in.html ;

The report yesterday that dairy cows in Texas, Kansas, (and likely) New Mexico have been infected with HPAI H5N1 - which followed the previous week's report of infected goat kids in Minnesota - is surprising, but not entirely without precedent.  

As noted previously, in 2008 researchers at Germany's FLI successfully infected four calves with an older clade of HPAI H5N1 (see EID Journal Experimental Infection of Cattle with HPAI H5N1), but reports of natural infection have been rare.

Admittedly, cattle are only rarely tested for HPAI, but a 2013 an H5N1 seroprevalence study in Egypt found that - while some horses, donkeys, and swine in the region showed evidence of past infection - cattlesheep, goats and buffalo did not (see Sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza in Animals and Human in Egypt)

Although not influenza A - for the past dozen years we've been following research on the newly discovered Influenza D virus - which was first detected in swine, but is now believed to primarily infect cattle (see Viruses: Influenza D in Domestic and Wild Animals).

While we haven't seen any evidence that Influenza D can cause symptomatic illness in humans, in the summer of 2016 - in Serological Evidence Of Influenza D Among Persons With & Without Cattle Exposure - researchers reported finding a high prevalence of antibodies against Influenza D among people with cattle exposure.

-

5. Natural Cases of Influenza A in Bovines


First recorded evidence of influenza in cattle occurred in 1949, where 160,000 cattle were infected in the western and middle part of Japan [76]. This incidence of cattle influenza ran for a short course with recovery in 2–3 days and the documented symptoms included high temperature (40–42 °C), blepharitis, nasal discharge, anorexia, tympanites, pneumonia, joint problems, and a decrease in lactation. 


This report also mentioned about some major cattle influenza outbreaks occurred previously in the Fall of 1889 and 1893, and some minor outbreaks in 1914–1916 in Japan [76]. The same study also mentioned an experimental infection of 11 calves, using nasal discharge/defibrinated blood from diseased animals and the successful virus isolation in mice, characterized by few deaths and lung and liver lesions at the 20th serial passage.

The first report on influenza virus isolation from animals was documented by Romvary et al. [88] from Hungary in 1962, which described the isolation of IAV strains similar to human H2 HA glycoprotein from pigs and sheep during 1959–1960. Romvary et al. [46] also isolated porcine IAV strains bearing human H3 HA glycoprotein.
Lopez and Woods reviewed influenza viruses from cattle and the first cattle-origin influenza isolate was reported by Barb et al., 1962, cited in [47]. Furthermore, there were reports on cattle influenza from several countries primarily from the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the publications were mostly in the Russian language, with the rare occurrence of English abstract and keywords.

Among these, the earliest report was on the seroepidemiological study of influenza in domestic species of animals in 1969 [25]. During the period 1970–80, cattle isolates of influenza A have been reported from different parts of the world, post/around the time 1968 Hong Kong H3N2 pandemic occurred in humans.


In 1973, the isolation and identification of the A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) virus from cattle suffering respiratory diseases were reported in Russia [45]. The earliest cattle influenza A strain studied under experimental conditions was A/calf/Duschambe/55/71 (H3N2) from Russia. This strain was derived from a natural case of respiratory illness in a terminally ailing calf and was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs [45].

Both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were isolated from cattle later. Few of these isolated strains reported include Sw/Shope (H1N1) from Hungary and several H3N2 strains from the USSR. The two viruses isolated from Hungary and the USSR possessed type 2 neuraminidase; however, HA glycoproteins were unidentified [47]. The H3N2 strains were similar to the prototypic human H3N2 strain A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (Schild G, C., World Influenza Center, London).

(SNIP)

In 1997, an idiopathic condition manifested in dairy cows in Bristol, southwest England with a sporadic drop in milk production [95]. Brown et al. [96,97] also reported seroconversion against influenza A in cattle from Great Britain, which was markedly associated with reduced milk yield and respiratory disease. However, the virus isolation from these seroconverted animals was unsuccessful. Interestingly, these cattle seroconverted to influenza A virus alone, with no detectable antibodies against BVD, IBR, PI3, and BRSV, suggestive of the etiological role of influenza A in the reduction of milk yield.

Furthermore, in 1999, Gunning et al. [98] also reported that the natural cases of influenza in milking cows increased with an annual incidence rate of 10–20% in some herds of England with a sudden drop in milk yield, mild pyrexia, anorexia, occasional respiratory signs such as nasal discharge and increased respiratory rate. High levels of neutrophils and haptoglobin were present in the blood in most of these cases. Serological screening of paired sera collected from five cattle herds with the same clinical history against IBR, PI3, BRSV, adenovirus, M. bovis, H. somnus, C. psittaci, C. brunetti, P. hemolytica, P. trehalosi, treponemes revealed antibodies against BRSV and PI3 in all herds, while BVD and IBR were detected only in some herds. On the other hand, these cattle sera demonstrated significantly high antibody titer to two human IAVs: 60% for A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and 65% for A/England/427/88 (H3N2) and only 5% of the cows were seronegative against both viruses [98].

These observations clearly indicated the exposure and natural susceptibility of cattle to human influenza A viruses. 

---

Cattle-origin IAV strains were isolated during the early 1970s, around the time when Hongkong/1968 human IAV strains (H3N2) were prevalent. Although the relatedness of HA glycoprotein of these cattle IAV strains to human H2 and H3 prototypes was reported, sufficient data/characterization studies were lacking to support the extent of genetic relatedness.
Pigs, which were domesticated by humans 1500 years after cattle, are naturally susceptible to all four influenza types and are excellent mixing vessels of influenza. Hence, the refractory nature of bovines against influenza A could be due to species-specific host-associated interference as discussed before. Compared to IAV and IBV (eight segmented genomes), bovines are naturally susceptible to IDV, and lately to ICV (seven segmented genomes) as indicated by the seroprevalence studies and isolation of complete viral genomes, thus contributing significantly to the bovine respiratory disease along with other bacterial/viral pathogens.

----------

Exactly why HPAI H5N1 is suddenly turning up in ruminants after 20 years is unknown. Some of it may be due to testing bias; since cattle have long been assumed to be poor hosts for influenza A, they are less likely to be tested, which only helps perpetuate the belief. 

But we've also seen a dramatic shift in HPAI H5N1's ability to infect mammals around the globe over the past 2 or 3 years.  It does appear to be expanding its host range.  A genomic analysis of the viruses isolated from these ruminants will hopefully yield some valuable clues.

An obvious concern now is, if H5N1 has adapted well enough to spillover into cattle and goats, are swine next?  A year ago, the ECDC/EFSA Avian Influenza Overview December 2022 – March 2023 warned:

The additional reports of transmission events to and potentially between mammals, e.g. mink, sea lion, seals, foxes and other carnivores as well as seroepidemiological evidence of transmission to wild boar and domestic pigs, associated with evolutionary processes including mammalian adaptation are of concern and need to be closely followed up.

While we've seen scattered reports of H5N1 in pigs (see here , hereand here), the virus has yet to gain a foothold (see EID Journal: Low Susceptibility of Pigs against Experimental Infection with HPAI Virus H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4b).

In swine, HPAI would potentially have access to a plethora of other influenza A viruses, which could greatly increase the risk of viral reassortment. 

This is obviously a developing story, with investigations underway in several states.  Right now, we have more questions than answers.

Stay tuned.  

https://www.blogger.com/profile/07982161449334601397

DJ, 

-It is good to see a study on A-flu in cattle in history...in itself it is NOT new-even the 1968 Hong Kong-flu A-H3N2 pandemic spilled over in cattle

-The background is very alarming...even with very limited testing lots of mammals did get infected by eating dead infected birds/droppings...

-So Sea lions also have mammal-to-mammal spread...H5N1 is "on the move"

If you look at how we failed to stop SARS-2/CoViD-19, we stopped SARS-1 in 2003, it gets even worse..."economy=profits first-means only money matters"....

The BIG problem may not be in the virus but in the way we keep ignoring risks...


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 1:52pm

[url]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143061/[/url] or https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143061/ ;

4.1. Definition of the phases

In nature, influenza viruses circulate continuously among animals, especially birds. Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, 

in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans.

In Phase 2, an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat.

In Phase 3, an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in people, but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks. Limited human-to-human transmission may occur under some circumstances, for example, when there is close contact between an infected person and an unprotected caregiver. However, limited transmission under such restricted circumstances does not indicate that the virus has gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic.

Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause “community-level outbreaks”. The ability to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a community marks a significant upwards shift in the risk of a pandemic. Any country that suspects or has verified such an event should urgently consult with WHO so that the situation can be jointly assessed and a decision made by the affected country if implementation of a rapid pandemic containment operation is warranted. Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean that a pandemic is a forgone conclusion.

Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region (Figure 4)23. While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.

FIGURE 4. WHO REGIONS.

FIGURE 4

WHO REGIONS. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of (more...)

Phase 6, the pandemic phase, is characterized by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region in addition to the criteria defined in Phase 5. Designation of this phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under way.

During the post-peak period, pandemic disease levels in most countries with adequate surveillance will have dropped below peak observed levels. The post-peak period signifies that pandemic activity appears to be decreasing; however, it is uncertain if additional waves will occur and countries will need to be prepared for a second wave.

Previous pandemics have been characterized by waves of activity spread over months. Once the level of disease activity drops, a critical communications task will be to balance this information with the possibility of another wave. Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate “at-ease” signal may be premature.

In the post-pandemic period, influenza disease activity will have returned to levels normally seen for seasonal influenza. It is expected that the pandemic virus will behave as a seasonal influenza A virus. At this stage, it is important to maintain surveillance and update pandemic preparedness and response plans accordingly. An intensive phase of recovery and evaluation may be required.

DJ, One might claim we are in phase 2; an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat.

The WHO decides on that-I think...H5N1 his different sub-variants/clades...also background of hosts may matter...

Australia: Disease outbreak kills at least 100 cattle being shipped to Indonesia Industry group the Australian Livestock Exporters' Council suggested that botulism, a rare disease spread via bacteria, could be the cause for the  cattle deaths. https://abc.net.au/news/2024-03-26/cattle-die-in-live-export-to-indonesia/103633064

DJ...if..if..the Australian cattle would test positive for H5N1 it would become "very serious"....

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream 

We need much more and better testing-my non expert view...

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote KiwiMum Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 2:30pm

I agree that this is worrying but there was a sentence in one of the above articles that said

"Cows affected by the virus recovered from the initial illness without any secondary signs and are slowly coming back into production...."

and from that I take a lot of comfort. The sky is not falling in. Maybe all ruminants will fail prey to this virus and then they will be sick for a short while, then recover and then be back to normal. I hope that no one tries to use this virus as an excuse to put even more cows into these awful indoor factory farms. It's animal cruelty in my opinion. 

We'll just have to treat this avian flu as a temporary hiccup like a common cold. It's not killing cows or causing any long term effects. So long as their milk and meat products are kept out of the food chain then all should be well. It will require farmers to be more diligent.

Those who got it wrong, for whatever reason, may feel defensive and retrench into a position that doesn’t accord with the facts.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote A-I Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 8:49pm

I think it's worth keeping an eye on. If large scale culling of bovine herds start that's a red flag. And that is not something easy to hide I might add, social media being what it is these days. But it sounds like they recover after infection.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 26 2024 at 11:22pm

What I noticed is OLD cows are more affected...(a bit unusual)...So there may be an increase of cows being culled-in part the flu brings an end to "productivity" earlier...

Concentration cows indoors will likely result in more cows catching the flu...

There are -by now- lots of mammal species that did see H5N1 infection. However it may all be different subvariants/clades of H5N1...Human cases (Cambodia, Vietnam, Chile a.o.) may not have clear links with mammal spread-often linked with poultry/birds...

"case-case-cluster-cluster-boom" turns out a bit complicated...H5N1 seems to be "crawling towards humans"...But the "cow cases" in the US may have needed another infection to end up vulnerable for H5N1 ?

On the other end of this story...H5N6/H5N8 other new variants could mix -increase risks ?

Feeding pigs dead birds/poultry that may have H5N1 is "asking for problems"-pigs may recombine H5N1 with (more "normal" H1N1/H3N2 etc) human flu types...

So...yes, keeping an eye on, NOT lethal in most cows, may be very limited in spread (two US states ?)...

I was thinking of the "Mexican flu pandemic" -well it did not turn into anything major...we have had false alarms earlier..

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 27 2024 at 9:19am

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream ;

AFFECTED POPULATION DESCRIPTION
Commercial dairy milking cows experiencing an unexplained morbidity event with some later-lactation cows exhibiting decreased lactation, low appetite and other clinical signs. HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b from bovine origin samples was confirmed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL). Epidemiologic investigations are ongoing.

SpeciesSusceptibleCasesDeathsKilled and Disposed ofSlaughtered/ Killed for commercial useVaccinated
Bovine (DOMESTIC)
NEW - 8 
0 0 0 0
TOTAL - 8 0 0 0 0

-

AFFECTED POPULATION DESCRIPTION
Commercial dairy milking cows experiencing an unexplained morbidity event with some later-lactation cows exhibiting decreased lactation, low appetite and other clinical signs. HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b from bovine origin samples was confirmed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL). Epidemiologic investigations are ongoing.

SpeciesSusceptibleCasesDeathsKilled and Disposed ofSlaughtered/ Killed for commercial useVaccinated
Bovine (DOMESTIC)
NEW - 1 
0 0 0 0
TOTAL - 1 0 0 0 0

So two states-9 cows same sort of H5N1 virus clade

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/wahis-report-on-hpai-h5n1-virus.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/wahis-report-on-hpai-h5n1-virus.html ;

We've discussed often that we aren't dealing with a single H5N1 threat, but rather with an array of similar H5N1 viruses that are continually reassorting and evolving.  As a segmented virus with 8 largely interchangeable parts, the flu virus is like a viral LEGO (TM) set which allows for the creation of unique variants called genotypes. 



Genotypes are created when two flu viruses inhabit the same host, allowing them to reassort into a hybrid.  Even when we limit the field to a specific subtype (like H5N1), and a specific sub-clade (like 2.3.4.4b), there can still be dozens of genotypes due to reassortment.

DJ...if there are no new cases maybe bird droppings with the virus got into water/food ?

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 27 2024 at 10:20pm

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/local-regional-communities-and-organizations/cidrap/987776-cidrap-avian-flu-detections-in-dairy-cows-raise-more-key-questions[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/local-regional-communities-and-organizations/cidrap/987776-cidrap-avian-flu-detections-in-dairy-cows-raise-more-key-questions ;

CIDRAP- Avian flu detections in dairy cows raise more key questions


https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/avian-inf...-key-questions

Avian flu detections in dairy cows raise more key questions



Lisa Schnirring


Today at 4:37 p.m.

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) The detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in dairy cows that had a puzzling illness syndrome, announced earlier this week, was a stunning twist in the story of a H5N1 virus that has been circulating globally, including in US birds since early 2022.

As federal veterinary officials and their state and local research partners continue their investigations, the findings have prompted a flurry of new questions among livestock and influenza experts. For now, they say it's not clear if HPAI was the only cause of the mystery illness in cows. Also, experts say the presence of dead wild birds that carried the virus at affected farms raises new issues about biosecurity in livestock settings.

In a notification yesterday to the World Organization for Animal Health, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) said H5N1 is the subtype and belongs to the 2.3.4.4b clade, which has been circulating in many world regions and has spread all the way to Antarctica. The virus isolated from the cow samples descended from the B3.2 genotype first seen in wild birds in November 2023. An analysis found no markers for mammalian adaptation or antivirus resistance.

Is HPAI the sole cause of symptoms?


Joe Armstrong, DVM, a cattle production expert with the University of Minnesota, in a special episode of the University of Minnesota Extension's Moos Room podcast about beef and dairy issues, said the unexplained illness syndrome had been reported in certain dairy herds in the Texas panhandle and other locations since late January and early February.

Over several weeks, the animals were tested extensively for different illnesses, he said. "When they started coming up short on everything, they started thinking outside the box about what this could possibly be, and they started testing for highly pathogenic avian influenza."

So far, there's not enough evidence to confirm that HPAI is the sole cause of the symptoms, Armstrong said. More testing is needed in cows that fit the case profile. About 10% of the herds on outbreak farms were affected, especially mature mid-to-late–lactation cows, resulting in a 10% to 20% reduction in milk production.

They started thinking outside the box about what this could possibly be, and they started testing for highly pathogenic avian influenza.

Armstrong said the illness profile is unusual because veterinarians are more likely to see illnesses in young stock.

He said the illness in cows lasts 10 to 14 days, peaking at about day 5 with a sudden drop in milk that is thicker and yellowish, similar to colostrum. Some of the animals had secondary illnesses, including mastitis and pneumonia.

The good news is that sick cattle are not dying, but the lack of necropsy tissues makes for a tricky diagnostic situation, Armstrong said. "So we're not getting a chance to look at as many samples and full sets of tissues as we normally would."

New biosecurity threats?


Jeff Bender, DVM, who directs the Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center at the University of Minnesota and is a professor and hospital epidemiologist at the university's School of Public Health, told CIDRAP News that infected wild birds—already identified as the source of the virus—raise big questions about biosecurity on farms going forward.

"Feed security is one answer, but are there other ways to discourage wild bird contact?," he asked. Experts have said shared contaminated water sources are another likely source and are thought to have played a role in the recent spread of the virus from poultry to baby goats at a farm in western Minnesota.

We also need to be watching cats and other wildlife that are frequently found around livestock facilities for any illnesses or unexplained deaths.

Removing or draining water sources on farm fields might be an option, but Bender said that would be difficult and impractical.

Armstrong said it will be hard to keep birds out of barns and birds and livestock separate. "Because we know a little bit about how this virus acts, we also need to be watching cats and other wildlife that are frequently found around livestock facilities for any illnesses or unexplained deaths," he added.

Has avian flu in cattle been flying under the radar?


Thijs Kuiken, DVM, PhD, with the department of viroscience at Erasmus University in the Netherlands, said serologic studies in cattle would help clarify if past epidemics in cattle were missed in different parts of world, including parts of Europe that had a high burden of illnesses in wild birds and poultry.

Like Armstrong, Kuiken also wonders if the cows' symptoms are solely due to HPAI. "Past human influenza virus infections in dairy cattle were associated with a so-called 'milk drop syndrome,' which has some similarity to the clinical signs of the currently observed 'mystery disease,'" he said in an e-mail.

From a virologist's perspective, Kuiken said the findings raise several more questions, such as whether the HPAI samples from cattle in Texas and Kansas are closely related to each other or suggest separate introductions.

Past human influenza virus infections in dairy cattle were associated with a so-called 'milk drop syndrome.'

Bender and Kuiken said another question is whether the virus can spread from cow to cow or if cows are more likely to contract the virus from a shared source such as contaminated water or feed or pastures contaminated by infected wild birds.

Kuiken also said scientists will be looking for any differences between the virus that infected wild birds on the farm and those that infected cows in terms of the ability to infect cattle, other than obvious mutations for mammalian adaptation.

Was there live virus in milk?


Federal health officials and veterinary experts have emphasized that the risk to human health is low, due to milk pasteurization, which inactivates bacteria and viruses, and strong safeguards in place to prevent milk from sick cows from entering commerce.

However, experts wonder if scientists will find live virus in milk samples from the sick cows.

Armstrong said the possibility that that infectious virus might be in milk from sick cows is another reason to avoid drinking raw milk.

DJ, more testing for H5N1 in both cattle, farm pets and birds in the area would be welcome. 

In general-the reason why we miss 99% of infections is we do not test...It is also not very practical, does have costs...However NOT increasing surveilance, monitoring may increase pandemic risks...One only notices the problem when it already is widespread...

Becoming a vegetarian/vegan may be wise...

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Dutch Josh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: March 30 2024 at 1:02am
US: Avian flu in cattle in Idaho "The virus may be transmitted from cow-to-cow" Idaho State Department of Agriculture

link [url]https://agri.idaho.gov/main/hpai-detection-in-idaho-dairy-herd/[/url] or https://agri.idaho.gov/main/hpai-detection-in-idaho-dairy-herd/ ;

Boise, Idaho – The Idaho State Department of Agriculture (ISDA) identified today highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a Cassia County dairy cattle operation.  

These are the first cases of HPAI in a livestock operation in Idaho. The affected facility recently imported cattle from another state that has identified cases of HPAI in cattle, which suggests the virus may be transmitted from cow-to-cow, in addition to previous reports indicating cattle were acquiring the virus from infected birds.  

The primary concern with this diagnosis is on-farm production losses, as the disease has been associated with decreased milk production.  

-

At this stage, there is no concern about the safety of the commercial milk supply or that this circumstance poses a risk to consumer health. The pasteurization process of heating milk to a high temperature ensures milk and dairy products can be consumed safely. 

DJ The ISDA looks at the story from agri-culture/farmer perspective...

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/usdacdcfda-mdard-statements-on-hpai-in.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/usdacdcfda-mdard-statements-on-hpai-in.html takes a public health view;

Late last night we learned that cows a dairy farm in Idaho had tested positive for HPAI (see Idaho Ag Dept.: HPAI Detection in Idaho Dairy Herd) bringing the number of states reporting infected dairy cows to 4 (Texas, Kansas, New Mexico & Idaho). 

Of note, the ISDA specifically mentioned the possibility of cow-to-cow transmission, as the affected facility had recently imported cows from another state which is now reporting HPAI in cattle.

This afternoon the USDA, CDC and FDA released a joint announcement adding Michigan to the list, and once again the possibility of cow-to-cow transmission is mentioned. 

DJ...so in Idaho and Michigan possible cow-to-cow spread of H5N1, Texas, Kansas, New Mexico do detect H5N1 in cows....

Since cattle are not routinely tested for HPAI, it is entirely possible that increased surveillance and testing will reveal additional outbreaks. 
Stay tuned.

DJ, Flu Diary mentioning a Swine-Flu H1N2 case in a US citizen...

[url]https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/cdc-updated-advice-on-bird-flu-in-pets.html[/url] or https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/03/cdc-updated-advice-on-bird-flu-in-pets.html ;

While the risks of infection to dogs and cats (and their owners) is considered low, it is not zero (see J. Virulence: HPAI H5N1 Virus Infection In Companion Animals), and cat-to-human transmission has been reported (see EID Journal: Avian H7N2 Virus in Human Exposed to Sick Cats).

With the recent revelation that HPAI H5 has been detected in two previously unreported farm animals (goats and cows), the need for public vigilance has only increased. 

-

H5N1 bird flu viruses have been detected sporadically in some domestic animals, including cats during outbreaks in Thailand in 2004 and Northern Germany in 2006, and cats, dogs, and goat kids (juvenile goats) in North America. In December 2023, H5N1 virus infections were reported for the first time in mammals in both polar regions: an infected polar bear, which died in Alaska, and in elephant and fur seals in the Antarctic.
While it’s unlikely that people would become infected with bird flu viruses through contact with an infected wild, stray, feral, or domestic mammal, it is possible—especially if there is prolonged and unprotected exposure to the animal.

DJ...one of many risks may be H5N1 coinfection with a (more) human flu virus in a mammal...

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-idaho-michigan-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/united-states/h5n1-tracking-af/987593-us-several-samples-taken-from-dairy-cows-test-positive-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-texas-kansas-idaho-michigan-potentially-new-mexico-march-24?view=stream 

there may be a list of H5N1 cow infections per US state...Very likely by now "dozens of cows" may have a H5N1 infection....spreading from -so far- cow-to-cow....It can end up in farm cats....

[url]https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/the-pandemic-discussion-forum/987828-discussion-thread-hpai-in-us-dairy-cows-march-24?view=stream[/url] or https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/the-pandemic-discussion-forum/987828-discussion-thread-hpai-in-us-dairy-cows-march-24?view=stream 

Is there a certaint type of H5N1 -with some specific mutations- able to infect (US) cows ? Are there -possibly- any cases in Canada/Mexico ? (If not-why not ???)

Is there an increase in testing ? So should we -because of more testing- expect to see more farm animals test positive for H5N1 ? 

Cats may run higher risks then dogs for H5N1 - any pet yet with "cow H5N1" ? (Did it also jump from a cow or did the pet get infected via an infected bird? )

DJ-Again...moving in the WRONG !!!! direction !!! Increae of testing -also for farm workers- may be wise...In the UK poultry workers had an a-symptomatic H5N1 infection not long ago....

We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.
~Albert Einstein
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